In 2018, 5.2% of employed persons aged 15 to 64 in the European Union (EU), 1.2% in Cyprus and 2.0% in Greece, usually worked from home, according to data released by Eurostat, the Statistical Service of the EU.
According to Eurostat, this share has remained constant at around 5% throughout the last decade. However, over the same period, the share of those who sometimes work from home increased from 5.8% in 2008 to 8.3% in 2018.
With 14.0% of employed people usually working from home in 2018, the Netherlands topped the list of EU Member States, closely followed by Finland (13.3%), Luxembourg (11.0%) and Austria (10.0%). In contrast, very few people usually worked from home in Bulgaria (0.3%) and Romania (0.4%).
In the EU, the self-employed usually worked from home (18.5%) more often than employees (3.0%). This pattern was repeated in each member state. The highest rates recorded were in Finland where more than 40% of self-employed persons usually worked from home (46.4%), the Netherlands (44.5%) and Austria (43.6%).
In 2018, a slightly higher share of women usually worked from home (5.5%) than men (5.0%). This was the case in most EU member states, with the largest differences observed in France (8.1% of women, compared to 5.2% of men), Luxembourg (12.5% of women, 9.8% of men) and Malta (7.4% of women, 4.7% of men).
“A slightly higher share of women usually worked from home (5.5%) than men (5.0%). This was the case in most EU member states.”
In contrast, in eight EU member states the situation was the reverse, with more men usually working from home than women. In the Netherlands (15.5% of men, compared to 12.3% of women), Denmark (8.5% of men, 7.0% of women) and Ireland (7.2% of men, 5.7% of women) this difference was especially large.
Eurostat states that the share of those working from home increases with age. In the EU, just 1.8% of 15-24 year-olds usually worked from home in 2018, compared to 5.0% among 25-49 year-olds and 6.4% among 50-64 year-olds. The highest share of 15-24 year-olds who usually worked from home was recorded in Luxembourg (8.7%). The next highest member state was Estonia (5.2%).
“The highest share of 15-24 year-olds who usually worked from home was recorded in Luxembourg (8.7%).”
For the other age categories, the Netherlands recorded the highest shares of those usually working from home (14.9% among 25-49 year-olds and 17.3% among 50-64 year-olds). It was followed by Finland (14.0% among 25-49 year-olds and 15.6% among 50-64 year-olds).